On lattice sums and Wigner limits

On lattice sums and Wigner limits
David Borwein, Jonathan M. Borwein, Armin Straub — Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications — Volume 414, Number 2, 2014, Pages 489-513


Wigner limits are given formally as the difference between a lattice sum, associated to a positive definite quadratic form, and a corresponding multiple integral. To define these limits, which arose in work of Wigner on the energy of static electron lattices, in a mathematically rigorous way one commonly truncates the lattice sum and the corresponding integral and takes the limit along expanding hypercubes or other regular geometric shapes. We generalize the known mathematically rigorous two and three dimensional results regarding Wigner limits, as laid down in [Analysis of certain lattice sums. D. Borwein, J. M. Borwein, R. Shail, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 1989], to integer lattices of arbitrary dimension. In doing so, we also resolve a problem posed in [Lattice Sums: Then and Now. J. M. Borwein, L. Glasser, R. McPhedran, J. Wan, J. Zucker, Cambridge University Press, 2013, Chapter 7]. For the sake of clarity, we begin by considering the simpler case of cubic lattice sums first, before treating the case of arbitrary quadratic forms. We also consider limits taken along expanding hyperballs with respect to general norms, and connect with classical topics such as Gauss's circle problem. An appendix is included to recall certain properties of Epstein zeta functions that are either used in the paper or serve to provide perspective.


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    author = {David Borwein and Jonathan M. Borwein and Armin Straub},
    title = {On lattice sums and {W}igner limits},
    journal = {Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications},
    year = {2014},
    volume = {414},
    number = {2},
    pages = {489--513},
    doi = {10.1016/j.jmaa.2014.01.008},